Dani Stone Adze Yara
Dani Stone Adze Yara
Dani people, early to mid. 20th century, Bailem Valley, Irian Jaya, Papua, Indonesia.
Fabulous agricultural tool known as an adze (yara) has a highly polished greenstone blade and a simple hand-carved wooden handle bearing a T-shaped head. The upper neck and head are wrapped dozens of times with tan-hued rattan fibers that hold the handle end of a carved greenstone blade with an acutely angled edge. Enveloped in a rich hue of golden brown, the handle is smoothly carved into a elegant curve that tapers to a point at its base. These stone adzes were traditionally used for cutting wood, digging, removing sago from palms, but also had a ceremonial function. Blades were made of a highly prized material (called pibit-pibit), chloromelanite, which can be found in the Cycloop Mountains. The extremely hard veined jade-like stones vary in colour according to the surrounding minerals, from pale to dark green, and to almost black. The blades would have been mounted in wood hafts and were so effective that they were able to carve even the ironwood supporting posts of the chiefs’ dwellings. Shaping the blades was a slow and laborious task and the stones were valuable and would be used as a form of currency. This sturdy adze is from the mid. 20th century or earlier. The stone blade itself however might be considerably older. New twine and shafts would have been added whenever the old ones had become worn or frayed.
The Dani are a people from central highlands of Western New Guinea (the Indonesian province of Papua). They are one of the most populous tribes in the highlands, with related ethnic groups Yali, Moni and Lani. In traditional Dani village are three different kinds of cottages: Honai, Eweai and Leseai. Leseai is an oblong square kitchen house used for family gatherings, cooking, talking, eating. Honai and Eweai are round sleeping huts. Honai is for men, while Eweai is for women. Following the discovery of the Dani by Westerners at the end of the 1930's, the Dutch established their first colonial post in the remote area of the Bailem Valley in the mid 1950's. Prior to contact with people other than their own, the Dani were a basic, agricultural, hunting and gathering society. The Dani have traditionally been animists who believed in local land and water spirits. Particular attention was given to the restless ghosts of the recently deceased. These ghosts are potentially dangerous and cause misfortune, illness, and death. The Grand Valley Dani conceive of a soul-like substance "seeds of singing" (edai-egen), which is seen throbbing below the sternum. It is believed to be fully developed by about two years of age. Serious sickness or wounds can cause it to retreat towards the backbone, whence it is recalled by heat and by curing ceremonies. At death, this feature becomes a ghost/spirit (mogat), and it must be induced to go off into forest where it cannot harm living.
Until the 1960's, when metal tools were introduced by outsiders, the Grand Valley Dani tools were stone, bone, pig tusk, wood and bamboo. Stone used to make axes (kapak) and adzes (yara). The Dani traditionally had no pottery and gourds were used for water containers. Dani men go around naked except the for a penis sheath (koteka), and ocassionally some bird of paradise feathers, cowry shells or pig tusks or a hair net as an a ornament. Unmarried women have traditionally worn grass skirts (sili) while married women wore a skirt made of fiber coils (yokal) or seeds strung together and hung below the abdomen to cover the buttocks. Dani crafts include intricately woven rattan bracelets (sekan), arm and head bands (milak), necklaces made of cowry shells, feathers and bone (mikak), and the head decorations often made with pig tusks (suale). Western Dani use wide range of wealth items. These included oblong polished stones (ye), slabs of salt, and looped carrier tree bark fibre bags (bilum, noken).
Excellent condition. Age-related wear and minimal abrasion to the blade. Chip. Loose rattan fibers. Signs of use. Fine polished patina. Size approx. 50,0cm x 29,0cm x 5,5cm.
Provenance: Dutch private collection. According to information, originally from the collections of a closed ethnographic museum & foundation in the Netherlands.
For a similar examples see:
Adze, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Accession Number: 1978.412.1486a,b (https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/311926)
Adze (yara), Harvard University, The Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology, Accession Number: 62-7-70/4032 (https://collections.peabody.harvard.edu/objects/details/84619)
Adze, Stichting Papua Erfgoed, Accession Number: EA/39/2 (https://www.papuaerfgoed.org/en/EA/39/2)
References and further reading:
Encyclopedia of World Cultures, Oceania, Karl Heider, edited Terence Hays, G.K.Hall & Company, 1991.
Wealth Items in the Western Highlands of West Papua, Anton Ploeg, Ethnology, Vol.43. No.4 (Autumn 2004), pp. 291-313.
Papua blood: An account of West Papua, Peter Bang, BoD, 16 Apr 2018.
Dani tribe, Indonesia, Atlas of Humanity
Who are the Dani People of Bailem Valley?, Crooked Compass, 3 Oct 2018.
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